Záhradníctvo

Horticultural research institute uk

Horticultural research institute uk



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Horticultural research institute uk.

In the past several years, a considerable number of articles have been published that indicate the important, unique, and often unexpected nature of plant-insect interactions. The primary role of the insect herbivore is to provide nutrition to the plant for its reproduction, yet in certain interactions, many insects also serve as pollinators. The insects, usually in the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera, in many cases provide a significant part of the nutritional requirement for many plants. Some interactions between insects and plants are beneficial and increase plant production, while others may be detrimental, decreasing plant yield or quality, and sometimes resulting in death of the plant. Some insect pests have a negative impact on the quality of human foods. For example, diamondback moths, beet armyworms, and armyworm moths that are considered major pests to a wide range of plants. The use of insect pollinators to increase plant production is commonly referred to as biological pollination. A recent book, Biological Pollination, by Cane (1999), discusses the role of pollinators in agricultural development.

Insects that are a major pest of plant life can have an even more detrimental impact on the quality of human food. For example, the tobacco budworm moth (Heliothis virescens) that has been feeding on tobacco crop has caused more than two billion dollars in damage in the United States during the past 50 years. The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) has also caused significant economic losses in the United States. In addition, many insect herbivores destroy valuable tree crops, such as walnut, and are a major concern in nurseries and the home garden market.

In the past, many plants were not available to the public in the plant material used to grow food, and the majority of commercial food sources of essential nutrients were obtained from animal products. Many of the plants that are cultivated for food production were originally collected by hunting and gathering activities. For example, wild potato (Solanum tuberosum), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) were all originally collected from wild sources.

Most crops grown for food use are cultivated from plant species that are grown as annuals. Some plant species, however, have a life cycle that is longer, and are able to survive in nature without human assistance. Other non-annual plants, such as the banana, citrus, and palm trees, have become essential crops because of their ability to grow in both tropical and subtropical regions. Because of their ease of cultivation, many annual crop plants have been modified to obtain certain desirable characteristics. For example, the plant species sweet corn was originally wild relative to the sweet potato, but was domesticated for its starchy edible substance.

A variety of crops, including fruit and vegetable crops, are grown on an industrial scale for human consumption and nutritional purposes. Crops grown on a large scale are usually those that are easier to grow and more profitable to produce. Crops that are usually grown in large amounts include potato, soybean, corn, and rice.

While agriculture has been practiced for hundreds of thousands of years, the first crop to be documented was wild wheat, which is thought to have been domesticated from a wild grass species Hordeum pusillum about 11,000 years ago. Wheat, and other grasses, were most likely spread through interplanting with barley (Hordeum vulgare), or between cultivation areas over the course of many years. Barley was the earliest known crop, having been domesticated for food about 10,000 years ago, and the first record of growing wild wheat is thought to have occurred about 11,000 years ago.

A study of the mitochondrial DNA of humans, for example, showed that farmers could have migrated from a region of the Middle East that was a center of cultivation to their present area in Europe only between 4000 and 3000 years ago. It was during this time that modern humans are thought to have migrated out of Africa.

Modern agriculture developed as foodstuffs were transported to regions other than that of their production. During the Middle Ages, agricultural areas outside of Europe began to benefit from European products. At the beginning of the 18th century, food production systems had been developed to such an extent that Europe's food supply was able to stretch across the rest of the world. During the 19th century, modern agriculture was introduced in most parts of the world.Zelená revolúcia viedla k výraznému zvýšeniu produkcie potravín, ku ktorému došlo v mnohých regiónoch. V súčasnosti sa asi 90 % svetových potravín vyrába v poľnohospodárstve.

Plodiny ovocia a zeleniny napríklad poskytujú potrebné suroviny na výrobu celého radu potravinárskych výrobkov vrátane nápojov, pečiva, cukroviniek, mliečnych výrobkov a pochutín.

Manažment plodín je prax pestovania potravinárskych plodín alebo dobytka s cieľom maximalizovať ekonomickú produkciu a produktivitu. Farmári si vyberajú, aký druh plodiny chcú zasadiť, koľko zasiať, kedy zasadiť a koľko semien zasiať. Poľnohospodári využívajú aj vedu o ochrane plodín, ktorá zahŕňa používanie plodín odolných voči škodcom a chorobám, ako aj používanie pesticídov, herbicídov a fungicídov na udržanie škodcov a chorôb pod kontrolou.

Pojem „poistenie plodín“ sa často používa na opis vládou podporovaného programu na úhradu strát poľnohospodárov, ktoré môžu utrpieť v dôsledku konkrétnych plodín. Koncept „programu poistenia úrody“ bol prvýkrát založený v USA v 30. rokoch 20. storočia, kde sa nazýval „dočasný alebo núdzový plán“. Pojem „poistenie“ sa vzťahuje na program znižovania rizík. „Poistenie plodín“ často zahŕňa ceny plodín a v konečnom dôsledku aj riziko budúceho príjmu, ako napríklad schopnosť farmára produkovať svoje plodiny s prihliadnutím na výrobné náklady.

Veda o rastlinách

Rastlinná veda je odvetvie vied o živote, ktoré zahŕňa štúdium rastlín, ako je štúdium mechanizmov vývoja rastlín, fyziológie, genetiky a metabolizmu.

Do oblasti rastlinnej vedy patrí aj náuka o rastlinných produktoch, ktoré je možné využiť na komerčné, priemyselné, či medicínske účely. Príklady komerčného využitia rastlinnej vedy zahŕňajú potraviny, vlákninu, krmivo a palivo, chemikálie, liečivá a biopalivá. Rastlinná veda je jedným zo štyroch odborov biologickej vedy, ktoré študujú život, a rastlinní vedci sú školení, aby boli schopní porozumieť štúdiu všetkých živých organizmov.

Vzdelávanie v oblasti vedy o rastlinách zahŕňa štúdium rôznych oblastí v rámci vedy o rastlinách vrátane genetiky rastlín, fyziológie, biochémie, ekológie a taxonómie. „Rastlinný genetik“ je špecialista na genetiku rastlín.

Fyziológia rastlín zahŕňa štúdium vývoja rastlín, ktoré zahŕňa štúdium vývoja meristémov, štúdium riadenia bunkovej diferenciácie a štúdium homeostázy meristémov. Fyziológia rastlín je pododborom vedy o rastlinách. „Fyziológia rastlín“ môže byť tiež synonymom pre „biochémiu rastlín“, keď hovoríme o bunkovej biochémii. "Biochémia" zahŕňa štúdium biochémie, molekulárnej biológie, bunkovej biológie, vývojovej biológie, genetiky, molekulárnej biológie a cytológie.

Rastlinná biochémia zahŕňa štúdium biochemických procesov v rastlinách, ako sú energetické dráhy, riadenie metabolizmu a štúdium výživy rastlín. Biochémia rastlín je pododborom fyziológie rastlín. "Biochémia" je široký pojem, ktorý zahŕňa cytochémiu, biofyziku, histochémiu, fyziológiu, organickú chémiu, molekulárnu biológiu, genomiku a bunkovú biológiu.

Taxonómia rastlín zahŕňa štúdium klasifikácie rastlín. Taxonómia rastlín je jedným zo štyroch hlavných odvetví botaniky


Pozri si video: IIHR, BENGALURU. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru Campus View. IIHR RESEARCH (August 2022).